This is a study of the water-raising wheels of western Syria from the aspects of sources, terminology, typology, origin, history, technology and architecture, and gives a survey of these installations, discussing their present state of conservation. By making use of historical, architectural and iconographical material, the study shows that Syrian water-wheels constitutes a particular type of water-architecture, which successfully combines the functional with the aesthetic and displays sophisticated forms of construction. These devices are visually impressive, present a variety of shapes and are of great historical, environmental and iconographical importance, being of extraordinarily accurate and detailed design. An attempt is made to present evidence of their ancient origin, and to gain an understanding of how their design evolved over time, the reasons for their significance and uniqueness, and for their great concentration in Syria.
Abstract - Foreword - Chapter One: Introduction: 1. Syrian water-wheels: an age-old tradition; 2. Source materials and approach; 3. Relevant available literature - Capter Two: Open forms of Water Architecture: the Water-Wheels. Technical and historical aspects: 1. Structural and functional characteristics; 2. Formation and evolution of water-wheels - Chapter Three: Syrian water-wheels in historical sources: 1. The hydraulic norias; 2. The s
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